For more than a quarter-century, Andrew Kosch and others immersed in southwestern Connecticut’s storied aviation history insisted that the most important step skyward that happened in this area was never acknowledged.
That changed March 8, when Jane’s All the World’s Aircraft, the published authority in aviation, rewrote history and credited Gustave Whitehead with the first manned flight of a powered, fixed-wing aircraft.
“That’s the bible of aviation,” said Andrew King, executive director of the Connecticut Air and Space Center in Stratford, home to a life-size replica of No. 21, which Kosch, a teacher at Platt Tech in Milford, flew in 1986, as well as a smaller model which King said immediately took to the skies when a gust of wind struck it at an air show. As a side note, King noted that the first air show was held in the greater Bridgeport area, and the legacy of Igor Sikorsky, inventor of the helicopter, is visible daily.
Much of the reason Whitehead has not been recognized until now, supporters and Jane’s insist, is because of an agreement between the Wright family and the Smithsonian that stipulated that any flight prior to Kitty Hawk could never be acknowledged, or the museum would lose the Wright Flyer. National historic sites stand in the Outer Banks of North Carolina and in the Wrights’ hometown of Dayton, Ohio.
Not so with Whitehead, save for a fountain installed in 2012 at the intersection of Fairfield Avenue and State Street Extension in Bridgeport. The places in Fairfield and Bridgeport where Whitehead flew his aircraft remain nondescript, devoid of markers that memorialize the historic event that occurred there.
Born in Germany with the surname Weisskopf, Whitehead moved to the United States but was never naturalized. He lived in Bridgeport and Fairfield until his death in Fairfield in 1927.
The Aug. 18, 1901, Bridgeport Sunday Herald account details Whitehead driving No. 21, also called the Condor, four days earlier “along the darkened streets of Bridgeport,” Jackson wrote in Jane’s.
“In the still air of dawn, the Condor’s wings were unfolded and it took off from open land at Fairfield … performed two demonstration sorties. The second was estimated as having covered 1 1/2 miles at a height of 50 feet, during which slight turns in both directions were demonstrated,” Jackson wrote. “This, it must be stressed, was more than two years before the Wrights manhandled their Flyer from its shed and flew a couple of hundred feet in a straight line after lifting off from an adjacent wooden rail hammered into the ground.”
Kosch said analysis of the sharpened photo and the description in the Bridgeport Sunday Herald led him and others to pinpoint the site of the Aug. 14 flight as what was Tierney’s Farm in Fairfield, adjacent to Jennings Beach, across Ash Creek from St. Mary’s by the Sea in Black Rock.
The account that appeared in the Bridgeport Sunday Herald on Aug. 18, 1901, was subsequently reported in more than 300 newspapers around the world, all listed by John Brown in his research. The report was illustrated by a wood-carving print of the flight.
King said that in the days since Jane’s acknowledgment, representatives of the Connecticut Air and Space Center had visited the Smithsonian wearing their “Whitehead Flew First” T-shirts. He said some were threatened with ejection, as was King when he visited the Smithsonian and the museum in Dayton, Ohio, dedicated to the Wrights.
The curator of the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum on March 15 issued a rebuttal of the recognition of Whitehead.
The recognition by Jane’s could have an impact on the visibility of the Connecticut Air and Space Center, currently occupying one building in what was the Stratford Army Engine Plant, which before that was the Chance Vought facility that built the Corsair that won the air over the Pacific during World War II. The museum occupies space there as the U.S. government continues to attempt to sell the site, unused for decades and in need of industrial cleanup.
“It gives us more validation,” King said, standing near the replica of Whitehead’s workshop.
Across the street stands the Curtiss Hangar that King and others from the Connecticut Air and Space Center are working to restore as a future home, all of the action taking place where Igor Sikorsky made aviation history with the helicopter.
“Stratford has been and continues to be a leader in aviation, whether it’s airplanes or helicopters,” Stratford Mayor John A. Harkins said in a statement. “We have always heard that Whitehead was flying in the area before the Wright brothers had their recorded flight. Nothing new is happening now, other than more folks are recognizing that the Wright brothers were not actually first in flight.”
“Jane’s has solidified what we’ve known all along — Gustave Whitehead was the first to fly a powered, manned aircraft before the Wright brothers, and he did it right here in Bridgeport,” said Mayor Finch. “Perhaps now Whitehead will receive the recognition from this country that he so richly deserves.”
A new addition to the exhibits is a mockup of Whitehead’s workshop, which served as a set when the Travel Channel took up the question of who flew first for its “Mysteries at the Museum” show.
However, until this month, regardless of how much evidence pointed to Whitehead having taken to the skies first, he would never have that recognition.
In King’s mind, one question remains: Could the engine Whitehead used on No. 21 generate enough revolutions per minute to leave the ground?
When Kosch flew his replica of No. 21, in 1986, he used engines from one of the ultralight craft he pilots.
It might soon be answered. Students in David Tuttle’s manufacturing class at Platt Tech in Milford are again working to replicate Whitehead’s engines. The engines were started several years ago, and are now in Tuttle’s basement in Seymour. Many of the parts were already fabricated at the Milford school, Tuttle said, but some were moved to the Connecticut Air and Space Center for the “Mysteries at the Museum” set when the Travel Channel took a look at the question of first flight.
Kosch credits pilot Morgan Kaolian of Stratford and Kaye Williams of Captain’s Cove in Bridgeport with getting his project off the ground after he heard a talk in Fairfield by Maj. William O’Dwyer at the Fairfield Historical Society.
There remain mysteries. Despite the Smithsonian’s denial, there are records of other flights, at Tunxis Hill in Fairfield and at “Orr’s Castle.”
“There are so many naysayers out there that say this doesn’t change anything,” King said. But for those like the volunteers working to nurture the Connecticut Air and Space Center, devoted to Connecticut’s aviation history, “it’s nice to see him acknowledged for what he did.”
“It’s not only a big deal to Fairfield, but to our region,” Fairfield First Selectman Michael Tetrea said. “Think about it: We’re first in flight. Every kid in America knows about Kitty Hawk. Now they’ll learn about Fairfield.
Tetreau, who was in a biology class taught by Kosch at Ludlowe High School, was quick to point out that Whitehead also flew in Bridgeport, Stratford and Milford, according to accounts from his time.
“This is important to the region,” Tetreau said. “Working together we can get a lot more publicity and a boost for the economy.”
It can also motivate local students in math and science, he added.
The Discovery Museum has an ongoing exhibit devoted to Whitehead, and Tetreau said the Fairfield Museum, which has hosted programs and exhibits devoted to the pioneer aviator, would again look to emphasize the town’s history in flight.
Organizers will also look to link Whitehead themes to events celebrating the 375th anniversary of the founding of Fairfield in 2014.
“The goal is let’s work together,” Tetreau said of the region capitalizing on its long-denied spotlight. “This is a good thing for everybody.”